If you’re worried about when will the sun die, don’t be: it’ll take billions of years. The sun provides energy to life on Earth, and without it, we would not exist. But even stars have finite lives, and our sun will die one day. However, you don’t need to be concerned about this solar death anytime soon. The sun, like all stars, is powered by a churning fusion engine, and it still has a lot of fuel left — about 5 billion years’ worth. When a massive cloud of gas (mostly hydrogen and helium) grows so large that it collapses under its own weight, stars like our sun form. In the center of that collapsing mass of gas, the pressure is so high that the heat reaches unimaginable levels, with temperatures so high that hydrogen atoms lose their electrons. Those naked hydrogen atoms then fuse together to form helium atoms, releasing enough energy to counteract gravity’s intense pressure, collapsing the cloud of gas. The battle between gravity and fusion energy powers our sun and billions of other stars in our galaxy and beyond.
When will sun die? The sun will run out of hydrogen in about 5 billion years. Our star is currently in the most stable phase of its life cycle, and has been since the formation of solar system, about 4.5 billion years ago. The sun will grow out of this stable phase once all of the hydrogen is depleted.
How old is the sun?
What is the age of Sun? Our Sun has been around for 4,500,000,000 years. That’s a lot of 0s. That’s four and a half billion. We examine the age of the solar system because it all formed around the same time. We look for the oldest things we can find to get this number. This works well with moon rocks. When astronauts brought them back for scientists to study, they were able to determine their age.
What will happen when the sun dies?
When there is no more hydrogen to fuse in the core, a shell of fusion hydrogen will form around the helium-filled core, according to astrophysicist Jillian Scudder in an article for The Conversation. Gravitational forces will take control, compressing the core and allowing the sun to expand. The size of sun will grow to be larger than we can imagine, enveloping the inner planets, including Earth. The sun will then become a red giant, where it will remain for about a billion years. The outer core’s hydrogen will then deplete, leaving an abundance of helium. That element will then fuse into heavier elements, such as oxygen and carbon, in less energetic reactions. When all of the helium is gone, gravity will take over and the sun will shrink into a white dwarf. All of the outer material will dissipate, leaving a planetary nebula in its place.
When will sun die? When a star dies, it ejects a cloud of gas and dust into space, known as its envelope. The envelope can be as much as half the mass of the star. This reveals the star’s core, which is running out of fuel by this point in the star’s life, eventually turning off and dying. According to astronomers, the sun has about 7 billion to 8 billion years before it sputters out and dies. Humanity may have vanished by then in some form or another. When our sun dies, it will not produce a stellar explosion known as a supernova, nor will it become a black hole. A star needs about ten times the mass of our sun to produce a supernova. After the explosion, an object of that size would form a dense stellar corpse known as a neutron star.A supernova must occur in a star 20 times the mass of the sun to leave behind a black hole.
How will sun die?
The death of sun is a long way off — about 4.5 billion years, give or take — but it will happen eventually, and what will happen to our solar system? The trouble starts before death: the first thing we have to deal with is the elderly sun itself. As hydrogen fusion continues inside the sun, the product of that reaction — helium — accumulates in the core.
The dying sun
With all of the waste product floating around, the sun’s fusion dance becomes more difficult. However, the inward crushing weight of the atmosphere of sun remains constant, so in order to maintain balance, the sun must raise the temperature of its fusion reactions, resulting in an ironically hotter core. This means that the sun becomes steadily brighter as it ages. The dinosaurs lived under a brighter sun than we have today, and Earth will become too hot to bear in as little as a few hundred million years. Our atmosphere will be depleted. Our oceans will dry up. For a while, we’ll resemble Venus, trapped in a choking carbon dioxide atmosphere. Then things get worse.
The great red giant
When will sun die? Our sun will swell and swell in the final stages of hydrogen fusion, becoming distorted and bloated — and red. Mercury and Venus will undoubtedly be consumed by the red giant sun. Depending on how big it gets, it may or may not spare Earth. If the sun’s distended atmosphere reaches our planet, it will disintegrate in less than a day. Even if the sun’s expansion slows, the consequences for Earth will be dire. The sun’s extreme energies will be intense enough to vaporize rocks, leaving nothing but our planet’s dense iron core behind. The increased radiation output from the sun will not benefit the outer planets either. Rings of Saturn are almost entirely made of water ice, and the future sun will simply be too hot for them to survive. The same is true for the ice-bound worlds orbiting those titans. Europa, Enceladus, and the others will lose their icy exteriors.
The increased radiation will initially blast the four outer planets, destroying their atmospheres, which are just as fragile as those of terrestrial planets. However, as the sun continues to expand, some of its outer tendrils of atmosphere can find their way to the giants via gravity funnels. The outer planets can gorge themselves on that material, growing far larger than they were previously. But the sun will not go away. It will swell and contract repeatedly in its final stages, pulsing for millions of years. Gravitational terms, this isn’t the most stable situation. The deranged sun will push and pull the outer planets in unexpected directions, potentially drawing them into a deadly embrace or kicking them out of the system entirely.
How will be the life without sun?
The outermost parts of our solar system will be a good place to live for a few hundred million years. Because the red giant sun emits so much heat and radiation, the habitable zone — the region around a star where temperatures are just right for liquid water — will expand. As we’ve seen, the moons of the outer worlds will first melt, losing their icy shells and potentially hosting liquid water oceans on their surfaces. The ices on the Kuiper belt objects, including Pluto and its mysterious companions, will eventually melt. The largest could evolve into mini-Earths orbiting a distant, distorted red sun.
However, our sun will eventually give up the fight, shedding its outer atmosphere in a series of outbursts that leave behind the star’s core: a white-hot lump of carbon and oxygen. This white dwarf will be extremely hot at first, emitting X-ray radiation capable of wreaking havoc on life as we know it. However, within a billion years or so, the white dwarf will cool to more manageable temperatures and will simply hang out for trillions of years. Because the former sun will be so cool, the new habitable zone will be incredibly close, much closer than Mercury orbits our sun today. At that distance, any planet (or planetary core) would be vulnerable to tidal disruption, which is another way of saying the white dwarf’s gravity could accidentally rip a planet to shreds. But that may be the best we can hope for.