The genetic disorders are most often than not characterized as diseases that “run in the family.” It is transmitted from one or both parents to a child, who can then transmit it on to his or her offspring. Since genetic diseases occur due to hereditary disorders, you can see the words “hereditary” and “genetic” used synonymously when referring to inherited diseases. But since the product of a gene mutation is also a genetic disorder, it can or may not be inherited. Either spontaneously or due to an environmental factor, these mutations happen. As with a genetic disorder, they are not passed down from parents. Let’s shed some light on the most common genetic disorders list featuring different types of genetic disorders.
Thalassemia, one of the common hereditary diseases, is a family of genetic disorders that restricts the amount of hemoglobin that can spontaneously be created by an organism. Oxygen flow is inhibited by this disorder in the body. Kids who receive the Thalassemia gene from both parents are 25 per cent probable to be born with Thalassemia. Individuals who are more likely to be recipients of the defective gene are those of descent from Southeast Asia, India, China, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and Northern Africa. Serious anemia, which may entail special treatment such as daily blood transfusions and chelation therapy, typically occurs with any type of thalassemia.
Among the most common genetic disorders, Huntington’s disease is a hereditary disorder that develops in the middle of life. It induces nerve cells in the brain to slowly dissolve, resulting in a deterioration of brain and muscle control. The disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder triggered by a genetic mutation in a sole gene, which implies that a person requires only one copy of the mutated gene to experience the disorder. A faulty copy or a safe copy could be passed down by each parent with a gene mutation, leaving a kid with a 50% risk of inheriting the disorder.
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell disease, one of the most common genetic disorders, is a genetic disorder that is triggered by abnormalities in one of the hemoglobin protein encoding genes. Red blood cells take on a sickle form with the irregular hemoglobin protein. Chronic anemia and serious disruption to the heart, lungs and kidneys are caused by the disorder.
The most common hereditary blood condition in the U.S. is sickle cell disease, impacting about 100,000 Americans, most generally African Americans. If both parents have the faulty gene, there is a 25 percent risk that a child will be born with sickle cell disease. If only one copy of the abnormal gene (from either parent) is inherited by a child, he or she will usually not get the disorder.
Cystic Fibrosis Disease
A gene mutation that affects the cells that create mucus, sweat, and digestive juices is caused by cystic fibrosis (CF). The mucus gets thick and sticky, triggering the respiratory, digestive and reproductive systems to experience significant damage. Children who only receive one copy of the faulty gene are mutants who are able to pass on the gene to their own offspring. But kids can acquire cystic fibrosis if they inherit two copies of the faulty gene, one copy from each parent. In whites of Northern European ancestry, this is among the most common genetic diseases.
A devastating genetic disorder that ends in the gradual deterioration of the nervous system is Tay-Sachs disease (TSD). It is triggered by genetic disorders that lead to the exclusion of hexosaminidase-A, a critical enzyme named (Hex-A). There is a 50 percent chance for carriers of the mutated gene to transfer the gene to their offspring. If one faulty gene is inherited by a child, the child is a carrier of Tay-Sachs. The baby would have the disorder if the child gets a faulty gene from both parents. Among people of eastern European (Ashkenazi) Jewish descent, the incidence of Tay-Sachs is substantially greater.
Besides other diseases encompassed in the list of genetic disorders, Hemophilia is most prevalent in men and is marked by a blood clotting defect that leads to unusual bleeding. On the X chromosome that embeds gender, the hemophilia gene is found. Since men have X and Y chromosomes, only one copy of the X chromosome is inherited (from their mother). So they have a greater chance of inheriting hemophilia if their mother is a recipient of the gene mutation. There are two X chromosomes for women (one from their mother and one from their father), and one typically has a regular gene copy. This implies that most women are victims of the genetic mutation, but have no indications or symptoms of the disorder.
Defective genes in muscular dystrophy interact with the formation of proteins that are essential for healthy muscle growth. Symptoms like gradual muscle weakness and muscle mass loss typically occur in infancy, but all ages and all races may be affected by the disorder. There are many types of muscular dystrophy, but in young boys, the most prevalent type, Duchenne, commonly occurs. Most types are hereditary, meaning there is a greater chance of developing it for individuals with a family background of the disorder.
Normally, 23 pairs of chromosomes are in the nucleus of a single cell, however Down syndrome arises when all or several cells copy the 21st chromosome for an additional time. Comprehensive prenatal screening tests, such as blood tests, which detect amounts of chromosomal material and other chemicals in the blood of a mother, are typically performed by nurse practitioners and doctors. With high precision, this form of testing will decide if a child will be born with Down syndrome or not.
They are probable to experience different levels of mild to serious developmental delays when an individual is treated with Down syndrome. A greater provision for congenital heart abnormalities, poor muscle tone, shorter physical stature, and an upward slant to the eyes are other symptoms of Down syndrome. Roughly one in every 700 babies born in the USA will have Down syndrome, as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Often, the older a mother is, the more probable the infant is to have Down syndrome at the moment of birth.
Albinism is a category of dominant genetic disorders in which the skin, hair and eyes of an individual have little or very little melanin pigment. In all racial and ethnic groups throughout the world, albinism exists. Around 1 in 17,000 individuals have some form of albinism in Australia.
Protecting their skin and eyes from the sun is critical for people with albinism, and getting their eyes checked periodically. The genes for albinism, one of the most common hereditary diseases, are passed on from both parents, who themselves may not be explicitly influenced by it. There is no specific examination, nevertheless, to decide if a person bears a gene for albinism.